New technology, machines and new materials are constantly invented and used in the road construction projects around the world. Increased durability, quality and safety on the roads is a major concern for every road construction engineer. Also is protecting and preserving the environment. To achieve effective road construction, engineers usually implement one of the following construction methods (depending on the type of material that is used for the road construction):
- asphalt road construction
- concrete road construction
- composite road construction
- recycling method, and
- bituminous solutions.
All these construction techniques provide increased dust control and increased soil stabilization. Soil stabilization and dust control can be achieved by including appropriate machines in the project like road stabilisers, compaction machines, soil stabilisers etc.
Asphalt Roads. Asphalt paving is the most common road construction method, used since the invention of the asphalt materials in the 1920s. With this method, a layer of asphalt material is laid on top of the soil. Before asphalt is applied to the ground surface, the soil is compacted and stabilized to achieve required levels of moisture and density. Proper stabilization can be achieved by road stabilisers or soil stabilisers. The soil stabiliser blends the soil and mixes it with water and a binder agent to create smooth surface. Main advantages of this road construction method are:
- traffic creates minimal noise on the asphalt
- asphalt is not as expensive as other materials
- asphalt roads are relatively easy to repair and require less maintenance.
Concrete Roads. Concrete is another construction method for roadways, but it is mainly used in the construction of local and small roads. Generally, three main types of concrete surfaces are used in the construction of roads: JRCP, JPCP, and CRCP. The type of join system that is used to prevent crack formations is the main feature which makes these concrete road surfaces to be different form one another. Appropriate road stabilisers or soil stabilisers are also required for effective road construction. Concrete is more durable than asphalt, but is more expensive and requires more maintenance.
Composite Roads. The composite materials are combination of both asphalt and concrete and are more durable and easy to maintain, recycle and rehabilitate. Effective road construction requires usage of composite materials.
Recycling. The recycling method is the most cost-effective solution for replacing damaged and deteriorated roads and highways. There are three main recycling methods for achieving effective road construction:
- Rubblizing – involves reducing the road level to gravel for applying a new layer of either asphalt, concrete or a composite materials.
- Cold or hot in-place recycling – it relies heavily on applying bituminous pavement for road reinforcement.
- Full depth reclamation – it includes pulverization process and the addition of different binding materials.
For effective recycling, special machines are needed like road stabiliser, also known as soil stabiliser and road recycler. These machines are powerful enough to remove the old asphalt for recycling and replacement.
Bituminous Techniques. The bituminous techniques are only used on very low traffic surfaces. Thin membrane surfacing, chip-sealing methods are all examples of bituminous solutions for road surface.